X-ray and optical techniques are used for mineral sorting.
Measurement of fluorescence, using a photomultiplier module, is an effective way of sorting diamonds by quality.
Optical methods can also be used for recovering diamonds from waste material.
X-ray sources with dual energy LINX detectors can be used to sort mineral particles. Sorting by particle size or by composition is possible. This enables ore quality to be maximized and usable ore to be recovered from waste material.